Vibrotactile Feedback through the Floor


We investigate the effect of vibrotactile feedback delivered to one’s feet in an immersive virtual environment (IVE). In our study, participants observed a virtual environment where a virtual human (VH) walked toward the participants and paced back and forth within their social space. We compared three conditions as follows: participants in the “Sound” condition heard the footsteps of the VH; participants in the “Vibration” condition experienced the vibration of the footsteps along with the sounds; while participants in the “Mute” condition were not exposed to sound nor vibrotactile feedback. We found that the participants in the “Vibration” condition felt a higher social presence with the VH compared to those who did not feel the vibration. The participants in the “Vibration” condition also exhibited greater avoidance behavior while facing the VH and when the VH invaded their personal space.

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Participant inhabited the virtual dummy

Footstep platform

Simulation timeline and participants' head motion